If you miss any attack you cant spend surges.
The only exception of that is if you miss a ranged attack cause you dont have enught range, then you could use surges to gain more range and dont miss the atack, but you cant use surges to recover fatigue for example.
That was the old ruling.
Now, if you lack range, even with the help of a surge, you may not use surges at all.
So you are telling me that Justin said that all surges that give extra range are worthless?
where can we found that "new" ruling?
By saying "even with the help of a surge", I clearly explained that you can use a surge to get more range.
But if, "even with the help of" that "surge" you don't get enough range, your attack is a miss and you cannot use surges for other uses.
Here is the ruling, as indicated in the BGG wiki :
Q: Can you spend surges on a ranged "miss" to recover fatigue or activate other abilities?
A: If an attack misses, then no surge abilities can be spent. This means that an X, insufficient range, or lacking a surge to spend for "Shadow" causes an attack to miss. If by some means you convert a miss into a hit, then you are free to spend surges as normal.
Here is the thread where the debate occured :