Possibly you forgot to activate cylon ships on your water/food shortages?
Each crisis card has an icon to activate ships. If you have a basestar on the board, then this icon will ALWAYS do something. I bring this up because the way y
ou worded it it sounds like you got attacks to occur, but they cylon ships weren't very effective. This isn't usually the case (raiders are terrible at fighting, but they usually wear your vipers down and get through to your civvies by stretching you thin.) Normally you can have a cake walk if attack cards simply don't come up… if they were coming up, it can be a challenge.
Having said that… a single attack may not be so hard. For example, you get a basestar and 3 raiders. Then you just get raider activations from there… no big deal. It's when you get raider activation, heavy raider, basestar attack, raider launch, raider activation, raider activation … then you start getting into trouble. On average, that entire sequence of events will only get you 3 jump icons, so, as is expected, you're approaching being able to jump, but the cylon ships are starting to become a problem!
Which brings me to another possibility - you were doing the jump icons correctly? You only move on the jump track if the crisis card has a jump icon. Not all do. If you were moving the fleet token after each crisis, you'd fly through the game.
As to your question for expansions. Pegasus. Pegasus Pegasus Pegasus. (Full disclosure: I find my experiences with balance quite different to the rest of the forums.) I bought Exodus first. With base game and Exodus games - about 20-40 in total, we found it EXTREMELY hard for the colonials to win. We would have killed for a few "cake walks" like you describe. So I picked up Pegasus -- an expansion I avoided because I did not like the idea of powerful Pegasus making pilots less useful, and Helena Cain being a "must pick" character -- and have found it has made BSG work balance perfectly. Every Pegasus game so far has come down to the wire. I think cylons win a little more often than humans (having played probably 5 or 6 games) but so far no white-washes. Yes pilots get a little less action, and yes Helena is a popular pick, but neither has been as bad as I expected. I personally found the CFB from Exodus to be a much more annoying mechanic (see my thread titled "Don't like CFB, going back to attack cards.") Also we really like using a Cylon Leader instead of the sympathiser (not a sympathic cylon leader loyalty card.) We find it works a treat.
YYMV… but for our gaming group, we find Pegasus, without Exodus, to be working the best so far. Proviso: We use Kobol as destination, not New Caprica. I have read over the rules and will play it one day… but from what I have read in the rules and forums I don't think we'd like the New Caprica mini game. I suspect avoiding it is helping swing things back towards the colonials a bit - just what our group needs.
Soon we will be trying a "Fully Loaded" BSG game - all Pegasus and Exodus components. I suspect ultimately we'll end up with everything from Pegasus, except New Caprica. Everything from Exodus, except the CFB. And when it comes, everything from Daybreak. Pegasus and Daybreak in particular have "updates" that really help the game, IMO.